The oil-rich Gulf state is ruled by a monarchy and governed by Islamic law. Of the three million residents, only 15% are actually citizens. Qatari women require the authorization of their fathers or husbands for almost everything important.

Markets carry a broad range of international foods, music, and films. Foreigners are permitted to practice their religion publicly, and many expatriate religious institutions sponsor community activities and services. The primary axes of social stratification are the nationality and occupation. The practice of hiring foreign workers has created a system in which certain nationalities are concentrated in particular jobs, and salaries differ depending on nationality. The broadest division is between citizens and foreigners, with subdivisions based on region of origin, genealogy, and cultural practices. Labor force participation for women in Qatar is roughly 51%, which is higher than the world average, and is the highest rate in the Arab world. However, both Qatari and non-Qatar women are affected by a wage gap, in which they are paid 25 to 50 percent less than men.

Qataris can attend kindergarten through university for free. Students who qualify for higher education abroad can obtain scholarships to offset the costs of tuition, travel, and living abroad. The presence of foreign workers has introduced foods from all over the world.

After marriage, women remain members of the father’s lineage but are partially integrated into the lineages of their husbands and children. Children of polygynous marriages often identify most closely with siblings from the same mother. As children mature, such groups sometimes establish separate households or compounds. The homes of Qatari citizens are distinct from the residences of foreign workers.

Prior to the establishment of an urban society, Qatar was used as rangeland for nomadic tribes from the Najd and al-Hasa regions of Saudi Arabia. In Bedouin society, women were responsible for buying and selling goods on behalf of their tribe. Women often had to assume positions of decision-making within their tribe when men left their families for long stretches of time to participate in pearl hunting trips or to act as merchants. I will have a lot of time to train for it, so I will have a better advantage than the Olympics 2012. Qatar is still building in sport and across the rest of its society. In other fields, women here have made significant advances in the past decade and make up almost 70 per cent of university graduates. When interviewed by Al Jazeera, Arkaji said she could not answer questions about cultural restrictions she faced to play sport as a youngster.

Qatari women play an integral role in social gatherings as they take pleasure in hosting events like potlucks and birthdays or just hanging out together with friends. Socialization is a big part of every day life, so having to juggle between multiple responsibilities doesn’t stop Qatari women from devoting quality time with those close to their hearts. Qatar enfranchised women at the same time as men in connection with the 1999 elections for a Central Municipal Council.

5.2.1 Proportion of ever-partnered women and girls subjected to physical and/or sexual violence by a current or former intimate partner in the previous 12 months. In the 1760s, members of the Al-Khalifa of the Utub tribe migrated to Qatar from Kuwait and central Arabia and established a pearling and commercial base in Zubarah in the north.

At the start of the building boom in the 1960s, little thought was given to aesthetics; the objective was to build as quickly as possible. As the pace of development slowed, more consideration was given to developing a city that symbolized Qatar’s new urban character and global integration. Designs were solicited that used modern technologies to evoke the nation’s past. The main building of the university has cube-shaped towers on the roof. Those towers, with stained glass and geometric gratings, are a modernist rendition of traditional wind towers. The university towers are decorative rather than functional; however, they are highly evocative of Qatar’s commitment to the lifestyles of the past while encouraging economic and technological development.

In a region where rulers’ wives and mothers keep a low-profile, she behaves like a Western-style first lady — advocating for social causes and grabbing headlines as a style icon. The foreign fans descending on Doha for the 2022 World Cup will find a country where women work, hold public office and cruise in their supercars along the city’s palm-lined corniche.

1.3.1 Proportion of population above statutory pensionable age receiving a pension. Qatar is an absolute monarchy – political parties are forbidden. The executive power corresponds to the emir and the Council of Ministers, which includes 15 men, as well as three women who occupy the portfolios of Health, Education and Family. E.A.M. is quick to remind EL PAÍS about the three women who form part of the government. “I am a mother, a woman, a Qatari, a Muslim, an Arab, a teacher and a feminist,” she says.